IEc has decades of experience assisting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state regulatory
agencies in developing appropriate penalties, and is a leader in economic benefit calculation for environmental
Several IEc staff are qualified to testify on issues relating to financial analysis,
including the economic benefit of noncompliance, and defendants’ ability to afford required compliance expenditures
and pay assessed civil or criminal penalties. We have successfully supported hundreds of civil penalty cases
involving entities ranging in size from multinational corporations to sole proprietorships, and from major
metropolitan entities to small not-for-profits.
In addition, IEc helped develop and maintains for EPA its
full suite of Enforcement Economic Models, which are used to evaluate the financial aspects of enforcement actions.